Glen Parva & Glenhills Nature Reserve - Species List

Key to the list at the end of each section:
Black - Bio Blitz 2015 not photographed
Blue - Bio Blitz 2015 photographed
Red - photographed & identified by Volunteers
Green - from NatureSpot
All pictures are taken on the reserve.
Hover over the following pictures to enlarge

Flowers and Plants

Flowers - In the UK, we need a wide range of wildflowers to provide pollinators (bees and other insects that pollinate plants) with local food sources across the seasons – including times when crops aren’t producing flowers.
Wildflowers also contribute to scientific and medical research. Some UK native wildflowers contain compounds which can be used in drugs to treat diseases. For example, foxgloves (Digitalis purpurea) contain chemicals used to treat heart conditions. If we were to lose wildflower species, we could lose potential new medicines.

Plants are one of six big groups (kingdoms) of living things. They are autotrophic eukaryotes, which means they have complex cells, and make their own food. Usually they cannot move (not counting growth).

Arrowhead - Sagittaria sagittifolia
Sue & Roy 20130704

Arrowhead is a tall, aquatic plant that is often found in shallow water or along the margins of slow-moving watercourses. It is in bloom from June to September, displaying small, white flowers, but it is the arrow-shaped leaves which are most distinctive. Like other aquatic plants, it offers resting and sheltering places for aquatic insects like dragonflies and damselflies.
It has arrow-shaped emergent leaves, rounded leaves near the water's surface and narrow leaves underneath the water. Its small, white flowers have dark centres and sit in clusters at the ends of the stems.
Bee Orchid - Ophrys apifera
John F 20190711

The Bee Orchid gets its name from its main pollinator - a species of bee - which is thought to have driven the evolution of the flowers. To attract the bees that will pollinate the plant, it has flowers that mimic their appearance. Drawing them in with the promise of love, the bees attempt a mating. As they land on the velvet-textured lip of the flower, the pollen is transferred and the poor bee is left frustrated. Sadly, the right species of bee doesn't occur in the UK, so Bee Orchids are self-pollinated here. Look out for their diminutive flower spikes on dry, chalk and limestone grasslands from June to July.
Bird's-foot-trefoil (Common) - Lotus corniculatus
John F June 2017

One of the more evocative names for Common Bird's-foot-trefoil is 'Granny's Toenails' which gives an instant, and perhaps not-so-pleasant, impression of the claw-like seed pods of this abundant and sprawling species. Other common names include 'Butter and Eggs', 'Eggs and Bacon', and 'Hen and Chickens' which refer to the egg-yolk yellow flowers and reddish buds. Widespread and found in all kinds of grassy places from lawns to downlands, roadside verges to heathlands, Common Bird's-foot-trefoil can be seen flowering from May to September.
Common Bird's-foot-trefoil is a member of the pea family. Its yellow flowers look like little slippers and appear in small clusters. They are followed by seed pods that look distinctly like bird's feet or claws. A low-growing plant, its leaves have five leaflets and are downy.
Bittersweet Nightshade - Solanum dulcamara
Sue & Roy 20140624

Despite being a member of the nightshade family, Bittersweet (also known as 'Woody Nightshade') is one of the less toxic plants in this group. Found in hedgerows, gardens and even on shingle beaches, its purple flowers appear from May to September and are followed by clusters of bright red, poisonous berries.
Bittersweet has oval, pointed leaves which are yellowy-green in colour. Purple flowers with protruding yellow stamens appear before the bright red, cherry tomato-like berries, which hang in clusters.
Black Horehound - Ballota nigra
Sue & Roy 20140706

Growing in hedgerows, roadside verges and waste grounds, Black Horehound is a common, perhaps unremarkable, plant with one defining feature - its pungent, rotten smell. This smell, particularly apparent when the leaves are crushed, keeps herbivores away and gives it a local name of 'Stinking Roger' in some places. It flowers between June and September.
Black Horehound has hairy, oval or heart-shaped leaves with toothed edges that may turn black after the plant has flowered. The flowers are pinky-purple, has two-lipped with a 3-lobed lower lip these are arranged in whorls around the top of the stems.
Black Medick - Medicago lupulina
Sue & Roy

Black Medick is a sprawling plant with small trifoliate leaves and clusters of little yellow flowers. The seed pods become black when they are ripe.
It is a foodplant of the Common Blue butterfly.
Bluebell (Native) - Hyacinthoides non-scripta
John F Map B-C3 20140421

Bluebells spend most of the year as bulbs underground in ancient woodlands, only emerging to flower and leaf from April onwards. This early spring flowering allows them to make the most of the sunlight that is still able to make it to their forest floor habitat and attracts the attention of plenty of pollinating insects. Millions of bulbs may exist in one bluebell wood, causing the blue carpets we so keenly associate with spring, and new plants are sometimes able to split off from these bulbs and grow as clones.
Bluebells are perhaps one of our most famous and unmistakeable woodland flowers - look for long and narrow, drooping leaf fronds and bending flower stems heavy with the nodding, blue bells that give this flower its name.
Bluebell (Spanish) - Hyacinthoides hispanica
John F Common through spinney 20140423

It is distinguished from the common bluebell by its paler, larger blue flowers, more erect flower stem, broader leaves, blue anthers (where the common bluebell has creamy-white ones) and little or no scent compared to the strong fragrant scent of the northern species. This bluebell was introduced in the UK, where it has become an invasive species.
The two species hybridise freely, and the resulting hybrid Hyacinthoides × massartiana and the Spanish bluebell both produce highly fertile seed and can invade areas of the native common bluebell. This has caused the common bluebell to be viewed as a threatened species.
Bogbean - Menyanthes trifoliata
John F

Almost hairless aquatic or semi aquatic plant reaching to 30 cm, and with stout creeping runners. Leaves trifoliate, with oval or diamond shaped untoothed leaflets held above water on long stalks. Flowers pink outside, whitish inside 14 to 16 mm starry shaped, the petals fringed with long whitish hairs.
Uncommon in Leicestershire and Rutland. In the 1979 Flora survey of Leicestershire it was found in 3 of the 617 tetrads.
Bristly Oxtongue - Helminthotheca echioides
John F Aug 2017

This plant is also known as Prickly Oxtongue and one can immediately see why - the stems and bracts are covered with rough, hooked bristles and the leaves are coarse and speckled all over with pimples. An annual or biennial, it grows to about 80cm on disturbed and waste ground, rough grassy places and beside rivers. The bright yellow flowerheads (20-25mm across) have strap-shaped rays, the outer rays often having red stripes behind. These flowerheads turn into a white 'clock' or pappus of seeds. The coarse, oblong leaves have wavy margins and are covered with swollen, whitish pimples, the upper leaves clasping the stems with unstalked bases, the lower being stalked.

Charlock - Sinapis arvensis
Sue & Roy 20140403

Charlock is an annual plant which grows on waste and arable ground and is found commonly throughout the UK. It grows to a height of 150cm and bears dense, terminal clusters of flowers. These have 4 unnotched petals and sepals which are often down-turned. These racemes are borne on bristly, often dark red or purple stems. The lower leaves are stalked with a large terminal lobe and the few small upper leaves are unlobed. The seeds are in short cylindrical pods and have prominent beaks. This plant belongs to the Cabbage family.
Chicory – Cichorium intybus
Sue & Roy 20140707

This is a common but distinctive blue flowered plant of late summer. The stiff stems, sometimes over 1 m tall can be seen at roadsides in most of England and Wales and southern Scotland but it isn't very common in Ireland.
The leaves can be used in salad but it is most famous as an additive to coffee. It has a tap root like a dandelion and this is dried, roasted and ground into the coffee additive. On some parts of the continent they make a drink from the Chicory alone without any coffee.
It flowers from July until October.
Coltsfoot - Tussilago farfara
Sue & Roy 20140331

Colt’s foot is one of the earliest flowers each spring. The alternative name ‘son-before-father’ refers to the fact that the bright yellow flowers held on purplish woolly shoots are often present before the leaves. The large leaves with their thick felt-covered undersides occur in rosettes. They are similar in shape to animal hooves, hence the names colt’s or foal’s-foot. The scientific name Tussilago derives from the latin for ‘cough’ (Tussis), and hints at the widespread smoking of the dried leaves in folk-medicine to cure coughs.
Common Knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Sue & Roy 20140706

This is a plant of the summertime which you find in fields, dunes, and on roadside verges. It is an insect attracting plant always full of lush purple flowers which last into autumn. The heads are sometimes confused with those of the thistle family but it has no spines and soft leaves with no serrate edges.
This attractive plant is found in every corner of the British Isles and Ireland.
Important for Gatekeeper butterfly, Goldfinch, Honey bee, Large skipper, Lime-speck pug moth, Meadow Brown, Painted lady, Peacock, Red admiral, Small copper, Small skipper.
Corn Chamomile - Anthemis arvensis
John F 11th June 2017

Cheerful daisy like flowers in summer time and pretty, feathery leaves. This is an annual plant that germinates, grows, flowers and fades all within a 12 month period. Nevertheless, it’s very easy on the eye and brings a bright pop of colour to the summer garden. The plant does have a faint smell, but nowhere near as unpleasant as it’s cousin the stinking chamomile.
The centre of each flower is bright yellow and surrounded by many daisy like white petals. As the flower ages the petals lean backwards towards the stem.

Corncockle - Agrostemma githago
John F June 2017 (part of the wildflower project)

A medium to tall (up to 1m +) annual with long, narrow and softly hairy leaves. The large (up to 3.5cm across) pinky purple flowers are borne singly on a long stem and are surrounded by long pointed sepals. The flowers are followed by a straw coloured flask like seed head containing large (3.5mm) black, rough textured seed.

Cornflower - Centaurea cyanus
John F June 2017 (part of the wildflower project)

This delicate, blue flower is now most likely to occur as part of intentional wildflower seeding, or as the result of the disturbance of soil containing old seed banks. Its strongholds remain roadside verges, scrub and wasteland. It flowers from June to August, often alongside other 'arable weeds' (also called 'cornfield flowers') such as Corn Chamomile and Corncockle.
The bright blue flowers are actually composite heads of small flowers, like all of the daisy family. In the Cornflower, the outer florets are star-like, with denser smaller, more purplish flowers in the middle. Stems and leaves are long and pointy with hairy, blackish buds at the tips.

Corn Marigold - Glebionis segetum
John F July 2017 (part of the wildflower project)

Although the bright yellow flowers of the corn marigold were once abundant in cornfields throughout Britain, it is not a true native, but was probably introduced in ancient times with grain.
It is of medium height, the flowers, which are yellow discs with prominent ray florets, are borne singly on the ends of the stems. The leaves are deeply toothed, slightly fleshy, lobed, hairless and covered with a waxy layer that gives them a greenish blue colour.

Corn Poppy - Papaver rhoeas
John F June 2017 (part of the wildflower project)

Corn Poppy is also sometimes called Common Poppy, Flanders Poppy, Field Poppy or just Red Poppy all are Papaver Rhoeas. It is one of the most colourful and easily recognised wild flowers there is. They are a standard ingredient of cornfield annual areas and are often sown in wild flower meadows to give some colour in the first year.
It is an annual and if you want it to come back in following years you would need to disturb or cultivate the ground each autumn. Poppy seeds have been used as flavouring to cover cakes and bread. In the past the oil from poppy seeds was used an an olive oil substitute.

Cowslip - Primula veris
John F April 2017

The Cowslip is a cousin of the Primrose and is also an early spring flower. As such, it is closely associated with much English folklore and tradition, including adorning garlands for May Day and being strewn on church paths for weddings. Formerly a common plant of traditional meadows, ancient woodlands and hedgerows, it was picked in profusion across the country for many celebrations. But the loss of these habitats to the advancement of agriculture caused a serious decline in Cowslip populations and now fields coloured bright yellow with the nodding heads of Cowslips a rare sight.

Creeping Buttercup - Ranunculus repens
John F 15th December 2020

Creeping Buttercup is the common buttercup found in grassland, damp places, along woodland and field edges, and in parks and gardens. It flowers mainly between May and August and long, rooting runners help it to spread.
Leaves are dark green with light patches and are divided into three toothed leaflets, the central leaflet on a stalk
Pale patches on the leaves distinguish creeping buttercup from similar looking plants such as hardy geraniums. The leaves and stems are somewhat hairy.

Creeping Cinquefoil - Potentilla reptans
John F 13th May 2017

A perennial plant with limp stems reaching a height of just 10 to 15cm, Creeping Cinquefoil spreads via long rooting runners. Flowers 12 to 25mm across have five yellow notched petals surrounding 20 stamens and numerous pistils. The petals are backed by a much smaller five-lobed calyx. Stalked flowers are borne solitarily in leaf axils.
The leaves are spaced alternately along the stems and varying from long-stalked to almost stalkless, the palmate leaves are divided into five (occasionally seven) toothed leaflets.

Creeping Thistle - Cirsium arvense
Sue & Roy 20140706

This is surely the commonest thistle. It grows in fields, in gardens, on drives and there's even one growing out of the gap between the roofing felt and the brick on my garage. In summer it attracts insects particularly butterflies such as tortoiseshells. It is even mentioned in an Act of Parliament. The Weeds Act of 1959 forbids it to exist in the UK but it takes no notice. The systematic name confuses some people because arvense usually means "Field" while repens is used to denote plant which creeps. C. arvense grows everywhere in the British Isles and Ireland. The seeds are an important food for Goldfinch and Linnet, and to a lesser extent for other finches. Creeping Thistle foliage is used as a food by over 20 species of Lepidoptera, including the Painted Lady butterfly and the Engrailed, a species of moth, and several species of aphids.
Crocus - Crocus vernus
John F 20140304

C. vernus is an introduction from southern Europe which readily naturalises in the countryside. At this location it had escaped from old gardens and into nearby fields where it easily competed with snowdrops, meadow grasses and daffodils.
It has naturalised extensively in southern England and can be found in northern England, southern Scotland, Wales but only occasionally in eastern Ireland.
Cuckoo-Pint - Arum maculatum
John F

Also known as Lords-and-Ladies.
An early flowering plant, Lords-and-ladies can be seen in April and May. They are shade-loving plants of woodlands and hedgerows and are particularly distinctive with a pale green sheath surrounding a purple or yellow 'spadix' (a spike of tiny flowers on a fleshy stem). This spadix eventually produces an upright stalk of bright red berries that is conspicuous amongst the leaf litter.
Lords-and-ladies has large, arrow-shaped leaves and leaf-like flower heads that curl around a long inner spike.
Daffodil - Narcissus pseudonarcissus
John F 20140224

In late February and throughout March daffodils can be seen at the side of the road throughout Britain. By far the majority of these are various escaped garden varieties and not the native daffodil. As a rough indication the wild flower is smaller than most garden varieties excepting the small rockery versions and varieties like February Gold which don't look anything like the wild species.
The genuine wild daffodil isn't common but where it does grow it will often occur in thousands. There are fields with thousands in near Ross on Wye and along the banks of one river in the Lake District they grow in thousands stretching for a mile or so. Wordsworth's Lake district cottage is so touristy now that I doubt any of those growing there are the originals he saw.
Daisy - Bellis perennis
Sue H 9th April 2014

Many related plants also share the name "daisy", so to distinguish this species from other daisies it is sometimes qualified as common daisy, lawn daisy or English daisy. Historically, it has also been commonly known as bruisewort and occasionally woundwort (although the common name woundwort is now more closely associated with Stachys). Bellis perennis is native to western, central and northern Europe, including remote islands such as the Faroe Islands

Dog Violet - Viola riviniana
John F Map B-G4 20140321

This is the violet that everyone notices on banks and in hedgerows. It will also grow in shade so could be confused with Viola reichenbachiana which flowers much earlier. Viola riviniana is such a versatile and hardy plant that it can be found on mountain paths and ledges as well as in lowland areas and in almost any area of the British Isles. It is variable in habit and colour of flower but the sepal appendages are very long compared with other members of the Viola genus and the usually pale spur is another easily recognisable character.
Figwort – Scrophularia nodosa
Sue & Roy 20140313

This common plant is found in all parts of the British Isles and looks like a smaller version of S. auriculata (Water Figwort) but is a lot smaller and has rounded stem.
The name Scrophularia comes from scrofula, a form of tuberculosis, because several species have been used to treat this disease.
Field Bindweed - Convolvulus arvensis
John F June 2017

Bindweed refers to two similar trumpet-flowered weeds, both of which twine around other plant stems, smothering them in the process.
The Field Bindweed is a weaker-stemmed plant than the Hedge Bindweed, with smaller white or pink trumpet-shaped flowers, but otherwise similar in appearance to Bellbind.
Fly Honeysuckle - Lonicera xylosteum
Sue & Roy 20140706

Lonicera xylosteum, commonly known as fly honeysuckle, European fly honeysuckle, dwarf honeysuckle or fly woodbine is a deciduous shrub. It is one of two honeysuckles native to Britain, the other being the common honeysuckle.
Forget-me-not - Myosotis sylvatica
John F April 2014

Wood Forget-me-not has hairy stems and narrow, oval leaves. Clusters of five-petalled, azure-blue flowers with white or orange centres appear at the tops of the stems.
Although Water Forget-me-not may have been the source of many early garden varieties of this popular plant, most are now forms of Wood Forget-me-not. A pretty plant with bright blue flowers, Wood Forget-me-not can be found along woodland rides and edges, in ancient and wet woods, and sometimes in hedgerows and verges as an escaped garden variety. It flowers between April and June.
Widespread but most common in the south and east of England.
Goldilocks Buttercup - Ranunculus auricomus
John F

This is an apomictic species for which several hundred agamo species (agamo = without gametes, therefore asexual reproduction) have been found on the continent according to Stace. There are probably another 100 or so waiting to be described in the British Isles but no-one has done it yet. This plant sometimes has a missing petal or two - occasionally no petals. It looks as though it has been damaged somehow but that is how it grows.
Great Burnet - Sanguisorba officinalis
John F July 2017

The presence of the bulbous, blood-red heads of Great Burnet is an indication of a rare group of plants and flowers flourishing together in a floodplain meadow. These special grasslands have thrived for centuries because of the way they are managed which results in a flower-rich hay crop. A member of the rose family, Great Burnet can survive for decades due to its extensive root system.
It has oval, crimson flower heads that appear on long green stalks from June to September; this gives them the look of lollipops. The divided leaves have oval leaflets

Great Willowherb - Epilobium hirsutum
Sue & Roy 20140706

Great Willowherb is a large herb that flourishes in damp ground, such as wet grasslands, ditches, riversides and woodland clearings. Its fluffy seeds are dispersed by the wind. Pink flowers appear on the top of hairy stems from July to August.
Great Willowherb is a tall plant covered in soft, downy hair. The small purple-pink flowers have creamy centres and the lance-shaped leaves sit opposite each other on the stems.
Greater Burdock - Arctium lappa
Sue & Roy 20140710

Found in scrub, woodlands and along roadside verges, Greater Burdock is known to many of us as the brown, sticky seed heads that attach themselves to our clothing as we walk through the countryside or attend the allotment. Children delight in its sticky nature, frequently throwing the burs at each other or even attaching them to unsuspecting pets. For this reason, it has many other common names such as 'Sticklebacks', 'Sticky Jack' and 'Sticky Bobs'. The hooked seed heads actually aid the plant's seed dispersal by attaching themselves to the fur of passing animals.
A tall plant, Greater Burdock has large, downy, heart-shaped leaves with wavy margins. It produces egg-shaped, thistle-like flower heads that appear in loose clusters from July to September and eventually give rise to the familiar sticky burs with their large hooks.
Greater Plantain - Plantago major
Sue & Roy 20140728

Pushing its way up through the cracks in pavements, the long, straw-coloured flower spikes of Greater Plantain are a familiar sight to many of us. This persistent plant also grows in lawns, grasslands, field edges and other dry and grassy places. Commonly known as 'Rat's Tail' because of the scaly, tail-like appearance of its flowers, Greater Plantain blooms between June and October, but its leaves can persist through the winter in some areas.
The broad, oval leaves of Greater Plantain form a rosette flush to the ground from which the yellow-green flower spikes rise up. The flowers are small and packed closely together and the leaves are tough and elastic and resilient to trampling.
Greater Stitchwort - Stellaria holostea
John F Map A-E12 20140525

Greater Stitchwort grows in woods, roadside verges, hedgerows and grassy banks. It has many other common names including 'Wedding Cakes', 'Star-of-Bethlehem', 'Daddy's-shirt-buttons' and 'Snapdragon' - the latter because its stems are brittle and easily break. It's pretty star-shaped, white flowers bloom from April to June; as the seed capsules ripen, they can be heard 'popping' in late spring.
Greater Stitchwort has five white petals, each deeply notched and almost divided into two. Its green leaves are grass-like in appearance and its brittle stems are square. Greater Stitchwort has larger flowers (2-3cm across) than its relative, Lesser Stitchwort (0.5-1cm across).
Green Alkanet - Pentaglottis sempervirens
John F May 2017

Green alkanet blooms in spring and early summer. Its stamens are hidden inside narrow flower-tubes which end in a white eye in the centre of a blue flower.
It is a bristly, perennial plant native to Western Europe. It grows to usually in damp or shaded places and often close to buildings. It has brilliant blue flowers, and retains its green leaves through the winter.
The name "alkanet" is also used for dyer's bugloss (Alkanna tinctoria) and common bugloss (Anchusa officinalis). Green Alkanet is an introduced species in the UK, meaning it is not native.
Ground Ivy - Glechoma hederacea
Sue & Roy 20140418

Despite its name, Ground-ivy is actually a member of the dead-nettle family and is an evergreen, creeping plant of woodlands, hedgerows and damp ground. It often forms clumps, spreading by means of overground runners that frequently root. It has a strong smell and violet flowers that appear from March until June.
Ground-ivy has kidney-shaped, bright green leaves with toothed margins that stick out from the stem on longish stalks. Its violet flowers appear in whorls of two to four and are funnel-shaped. It smells strongly of blackcurrant or tom-cats.
Hedge Bindweed - Calystegia sepium
John F June 2017

Also called Bellbind climbs with strong twining stems, has large heart-shaped leaves and large white trumpet flowers. It is most often seen as a hedgerow plant or weed, scrambling over and often smothering hedges and shrubs of all sizes and even smaller ornamental trees.
Hedge Woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Sue & Roy 20140706

Growing in hedgerows, woodlands and roadside verges, Hedge Woundwort is a common, perhaps unremarkable, plant with one defining feature - its unpleasant and astringent smell. This smell is particularly apparent when the plant is crushed. Magenta flowers appear between June and October and are pollinated by bees. Once the seed is dispersed, the plant spreads vigorously using its underground rhizomes (stems).
Hedge Woundwort has hairy stems bearing whorls of magenta-pink flowers that have white markings on the lower 'lip' and a 'hood'. Its hairy leaves are dark green, heart-shaped and toothed.
Hedgerow Crane's-bill - Geranium pyrenaicum
John F Map A-E8 20140526

The flower has 5 petals, they are notched and pink to purple in colour. The sepals end in a bristle.
Hedgerow Crane's-bill is found on banks, verges and unsurprisingly, near hedgerows. The flowers are a big enough to make this an attractive wayside plant which can be quite persistent.
Herb Bennet - Geum urbanum
Sue & Roy 20140320

Herb Bennet also known as wood avens, colewort and St. Benedict's herb, is a perennial plant in the rose family, which grows in shady places such as woodland edges and near hedgerows.
The flowers are scented and pollinated by bees. The fruits have burrs, which are used for dispersal by getting caught in the fur of rabbits and other animals.
The root is used as a spice in soups and also for flavouring ale.
Herb Robert - Geranium robertianum
John F Map B-E5 20140321

Herb-Robert is a type of crane's-bill that is found in a variety of habitats including woodland, hedgerows, rocky or exposed areas, scree slopes and coastal areas. Look for it in areas of shade away from acidic soils. The small pink flowers of Herb-Robert mainly appear between May and September and its leaves emit an unpleasant mousy scent.
Herb-Robert has five-petalled, pink flowers, and reddish stems. The deeply divided, lobed leaves are also tinged with red.
Hoary Ragwort - Jacobaea erucifolia
John F 23rd August 2016

Flowers are paler yellow than those of Common Ragwort and the bracts not dark-tipped. The deeply-pinnate leaves with narrow, coarse-toothed segments have greyish-white cottony hairs, densest beneath leaves.
Ragworts contain alkaloids associated with liver damage but risk to livestock only occurs if plant material is included in hay or silage as grazing animals avoid fresh, growing plants.

Hooded Skullcap - Scutellaria lateriflora
Sue H 20140701

Skullcap can be found on damp ground such as marshes, fens, riverbanks, pond margins and canal sides. This delicate flower blooms between June and September and is pollinated by long-tongued bees; it is also the only food plant of the Skullcap Leaf Beetle - a yellowy-brown beetle with a black head and four spots on its back.
Skullcaps have violet-blue, tube-like flowers with two lips that sit in pairs in the leaf axils (where they join the stem). They have square stems and oval leaves with toothed margins that appear in opposite pairs. The closely related Lesser Skullcap has pink flowers.
Skullcap is used in herbal medicine as a mild sedative and sleep promoter.
Horseradish - Armoracia rusticana
Sue H 20140523

Because horseradish is a cousin to cabbage, radish and mustard, it produces similar four-petaled, cross like flowers. From late spring to early summer, flower stems rise above the leaves to display a branched, loose cluster of white flowers, each blossom measuring 1/4 to 3/8 inch in diameter. A horseradish in flower is quite attractive, because the ruffled green leaves contrast the upright, cloudlike clusters of white flowers that lure insects for pollination
The scent only occurs when the juices in the root are exposed to oxygen in the air. The bitter, hot flavour occurs when the horseradish juice mixes with oxygen and your saliva. Some people may get a rash if any leaf or root juices get on their skin.

John F Aug 2017
Lady's Bedstraw - Galium verum
Sue & Roy 20140718

A plant of high summer, this one covers many banks of minor and major roads and even motorways.
Lady's bedstraw was used as a soft and fragrant mattress filling for ladies but more than that it had styptic properties (placed on wounds to stop bleeding) and it was used to curdle the milk used in the making of Cheese.
Large Bittercress - Cardamine amara
Sue & Roy 20140421

Large Bittercress grows beside streams and canals, in marshes, and wet meadows and woods.
Hairless plant about 40 or 50 cm in height with angular stems. Flowers are white, occasionally purplish 11 to 12 mm. Anthers, blackish violet.
Lesser Celandine - Ficaria verna
John F April 2018

Lesser Celandine (formally Ranunculus ficaria) is a characteristic spring flower of woodlands, hedgerows, graveyards and parks where its shiny flowers can carpet area with gold between March and May. Despite its name, it is not actually a close relative of Greater Celandine, and is a member of the buttercup family instead.
Lesser Celandine is a low-growing plant with dark green, shiny, heart-shaped leaves and bright yellow flowers about 3cm across that open in the sunlight.
The poet William Wordsworth was very fond of the flower and it inspired him to write three poems.
Marsh Bedstraw - Galium palustre
John F 21st April 2017

It can reach a height of half a metre or so. The stems are usually four sided (squarish) and the narrow leaves, in whorls of usually four (but occasionally up to six), have rounded tips and their margins bear small, backward-facing bristles. From pinkish round buds, four-petalled flowers 3 to 4mm in diameter open to reveal four stamens. The fruits are round and smooth, unlike to hairy-sticky fruits of Galium aparine, Cleavers. Marsh Bedstraw is quite a variable plant, particularly in its leaf form, and several subspecies have been described.

Marsh Marigold - Caltha palustris
John F Map A E8 20140405

The large golden flowers of Marsh-marigold certainly look like the cups of kings and the Latin name Caltha is derived from the Greek for 'goblet'. Hence, Marsh-marigold is also commonly known as 'Kingcup'. It is a widespread plant of ponds, marshes, damp meadows, ditches and wet woodland and, before the draining of the landscape for agriculture began, was a conspicuous spring flower.
Marsh-marigold is a large buttercup-like flower that grows in wet places. It has very large, rounded, scalloped leaves.
Meadow Crane's-bill - Geranium pratense
John F June 2014

The large purple flowers of Meadow Crane's-bill turn into pointed, bill-like seed pods that give the plant its common name. This clump-forming perennial has lobed leaves that are deeply divided.
The striking blue and violet flowers of Meadow Crane's-bill can be seen in lowland hay meadows, roadside verges and grasslands, particularly on chalk soils. It flowers between June and August, colouring the roadsides of areas like the Cotswolds. It is also a popular garden plant that will grow well in sunny spots.
Widespread in mainland UK, but rarer in the south-west of England and East Anglia.
Meadow Vetchling - Lathyrus pratensis
Sue & Roy 20140706

Meadow Vetchling is a member of the pea and clover family (legumes) which can be found scrambling and climbing through grassy areas including rough grassland, roadside verges and waste ground. Groups of four to twelve yellow flowers appear between May and August attracting bees and wasps.
Meadow Vetchling is a scrambling plant with long stems that end with a group of yellow, pea-like flowers. The flowers are followed by shiny, black seed pods that look like peapods. Its leaves comprise a single pair of leaflets that have tendrils.
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Sue & Roy 20140706

Meadowsweet is a member of the rose family that favours wet habitats such as ditches, damp meadows and riverbanks. Its leaves are sometimes covered with a bright orange rust fungus. Meadowsweet flowers from June to September, its sprays of tiny creamy-white flowers standing atop tall stems.
Meadowsweet has fluffy white flower heads and dark green leaves divided into pairs of leaflets. It can often be seen clustered together in a group of many plants.
Nipplewort (could be) - Lapsana communis
Sue & Roy 20140706

Some similarities to : Wall Lettuce, but whereas Wall Lettuce has but five well-spaced out pale yellow ray florets (or 'petals'), Nipplewort has about three times as many (although far fewer than most members of the Daisy Family) and which often appear straggly or unkempt.
Distinguishing Feature : An open structure to the plant with well-spaced branches. The flowers are smaller than most and are pale yellow with fewer 'petals' than is common for the Daisy family.
Confusion: There are two sub-species of Nipplewort; all three have the same common name, Nipplewort: The large-teethed leaves are narrow lanceolate but few at the top, gradually becoming wider and more numerous the lower down they are until at the base the leaves large lobes and the sharp teeth have become blunt bite-marks.
Orange Balsam - Impatiens capensis
John F Sep 2020

Jewelweed is an herbaceous plant that grows 3 to 5 feet tall and blooms from late spring to early autumn. The flowers are orange (sometimes blood orange or rarely yellow) with a three-lobed corolla; one of the calyx lobes is colored similarly to the corolla and forms a hooked conical spur at the back of the flower. Plants may also produce non-showy cleistogamous flowers, which do not require cross-pollination. The seed pods have five valves which coil back rapidly to eject the seeds in a process called explosive dehiscence or ballistochory. This reaction is where the name 'touch-me-not' comes from; in mature seed pods, dehiscence can easily be triggered with a light touch.
Oxeye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
John F 7th June 2017

It is similar to the daisy but with larger flowerheads, which can be 6 cm across. The base leaves are spoon-shaped and about 10 cm long. The stem leaves are toothed and more oblong.
It grows in grassy places. It grows in a variety of habitats including meadows and fields, under open-canopy forests and scrub and in disturbed areas.

Periwinkle - Vinca minor
Sue & Roy 20140326

Vinca minor is a trailing, viny subshrub, spreading along the ground and rooting along the stems to form large clonal colonies and occasionally scrambling up to 40 centimetres high but never twining or climbing.
The flowers are solitary in the leaf axils and are produced mainly from early spring to mid summer but with a few flowers still produced into the autumn; they are violet-purple
Pineapple Weed - Matricaria discoidea
John F 26th June 2017

The bright green, feathery leaves and yellow flower heads of Pineappleweed can be seen on bare, disturbed ground, such as paths and pavements, roadsides and tracks. Introduced into the UK during the late 19th century, its rapid spread has been attributed to growth of motor transport - the seeds being picked up on tyre treads, along with the mud of the then untarmaced roads, and being deposited miles away as rain washed them off.
Pineappleweed lives up to its name - its crushed leaves have a distinctive pineapple smell. Its leaves are finely divided and feathery, and its yellow, conical flower heads which look remarkably like tiny pineapples appear from May to November. Like the other members of the daisy family, it is a composite flower, so has a flower head made up of lots of individual blooms, but it has no 'ray florets', so appears to have no 'petals'.
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
John F March 2018

The soft yellow flowers of primrose need little description and are a welcome sight in spring, especially when nestled in their foil of textured leaves. They don't like hot sun and dry soil. The smell will reward you with the first scented ’roses’ (’prima rosa’) of the year. It has been used in the breeding of polyanthus (a primrose hybridised with a cowslip) and many garish and flouncy varieties.

Ragged Robin - Lychnis flos-cuculi
John F June 2014

Ragged-Robin is a perennial that is likely to be growing in wetter areas such as marshes, fens and wet meadows. It has much-divided, pink flowers (hence the name 'Ragged') and narrow, grass-like leaves.
Swaying in a gentle breeze, the delicate pink flowers of Ragged-Robin can be a joy to behold in any wildflower meadow, damp pasture or woodland ride. But it's not just passing humans that benefit from its star-shaped flowers, bumblebees, butterflies and Honey Bees all enjoy the nectar it produces.
Grows almost everywhere in the UK, but especially in damp and wet places.
The pink, frayed flowers of Ragged-Robin are an increasingly rare sight in the wild. Human activity, including the drainage of land for agriculture, the loss of ponds through development and the removal of wet woods, has resulted in the disappearance of many of the UK's wetlands.
Ragwort - Jacobaea - vulgaris
John F 24th August 2014

The daisy-like, yellow flower heads of Common Ragwort may be pretty enough to the casual observer, but they belie the poisonous nature of this plant. Renowned as a weed of paddocks and pastures where it can be harmful to livestock, it is not usually such an issue in gardens or waste grounds. In fact, it is the foodplant of the black and red Cinnabar Moth: sometimes its black- and yellow-barred caterpillars cover the plant, totally stripping the leaves. Common Ragwort flowers from June to November.
Common Ragwort is a biennial, flowering in its second year. It has clusters of yellow, flattened flower heads, and leaves that are much divided, almost looking feathery.

Ramsons - Allium ursinum
John F May 2018

Also known as wild garlic, this plant carpets the ground in areas of woodland across the UK giving off a distinctive odour of garlic.
Leaves: long, pointed and oval in shape with untoothed margins. Leaves grow from the plant base, from the bulb of the plant itself. Leaves have a garlic scent.
Flowers: white in colour. Six petals make up a flower, with around 25 of these forming the rounded shaped flower cluster. Flowers are on leafless stalks.

Red Bartsia - Odontites vernus
Sue & Roy 20140707

Red Bartsia is a common plant of roadside verges, railway cuttings, waste grounds and other disturbed ground. These areas often have low-fertility soils, so Red Bartsia is actually partly parasitic, gaining extra nutrients from the roots of its nearby host grasses. As its name suggests, the whole plant is tinged with red and leafy flower spikes appear from June to September.
Red Bartsia is a straggly, downy plant with narrow, toothed leaves that sit opposite each other along the stems. Pinky-purple flowers appear on the stems in clusters, nestling in the leaf axils (where they join the stem).

Red Campion - Silene dioica
John F June 2017

This little pinky-red meadow flower is often found in the wild growing in woodlands and in the verges of country roads. It has rich green leaves that appear in spring, and has a long flowering period right through until the start of autumn.
It displays rose-red flowers with five petals, each deeply notched and almost divided into two; its leaves and stems are hairy. In places where it grows alongside White Campion, the two may hybridise to produce pinky or white blooms.
Red Clover - Trifolium pratense
John F Aug 2016

Commonly known as red clover in many parts of the English speaking world, Trifolium pratense is extensively grown as a forage crop for pasturage, hay and green manure, and is reported to be excellent for livestock and poultry. The species is a nitrogen-fixer and has long been used in crop rotation systems to enrich the soil. Several novel varieties and subspecies of the plant have been described, but its infraspecific (within the species) classification is complex. Red clover has been widely used in folk medicine for conditions ranging from athlete’s foot to constipation. An extract of the flowers has been used for cancerous ulcers and corns. Red clover contains isoflavones and a herbal product sold in tablet form is taken by women during and after the menopause.
Red Dead Nettle - Lamium purpureum
Sue & Roy 20140326

Red Dead-nettle is a common plant of roadside verges, waste grounds and field edges - anywhere the ground has been disturbed or cultivated. Like Yellow Archangel and other members of the 'dead'-nettle family, it doesn't have stinging leaves. Its crimson flowers appear from March to October.
Looking similar to a Stinging Nettle, Red Dead-nettle is a downy annual with heart-shaped, toothed leaves and reddish, square stems. Dense whorls of pinky-red flowers appear up the stem; the flowers have a curved 'hood' and a 'lip'.
Ribwort Plantain - Plantago lanceolata
John F June 2017

In contrast to the long flower spikes of Greater Plantain, the short, oval flower heads of Ribwort Plantain appear as if balanced on the top of their thin, wiry stems. Ribwort Plantain is a plant of grasslands, field edges and cultivated ground and tracks, and regularly pops up in lawns as a 'weed'. It flowers between April and October, but its seedheads remain for most of the winter providing food for Goldfinches and other seed-eating birds.
Ribwort Plantain has spear-shaped leaves which form a rosette at the base of the plant. Short stems grow from its leaves, with compact heads and protruding, white stamens. The flower heads gradually turn brown and seed.

Rose Bay Willowherb - Chamerion angustifolium
John F June 2017

The tall, pink flower spikes of Rosebay Willowherb can often be seen crowding together in thick stands in open spaces such as woodland clearings, roadside verges, grassland and waste ground. A successful coloniser, Rosebay Willowherb has grown in number from a scarce woodland plant to a ubiquitous flower. This expansion occurred as a result of two World Wars clearing huge areas of forest and burning the ground in both town and countryside - just the right conditions for this plant to thrive in. One of its common names in the south-east alludes to this takeover: 'Bombweed'.
Rosebay Willowherb is a tall plant with pink flowers rising up a flower spike; these flowers appear from June to September. It has lance-like leaves which are arranged spirally up its stem.
Rough Hawkbit - Leontodon hispidus
John F July 2017

This is one of that group of difficult yellow composites which is made a little easier to identify by being roughly hairy, usually on single stems from a basal rosette and growing in well drained calcareous grassland. The flower is a slightly deeper golden yellow than many other yellow composites and the underside of the outer florets sometimes has a reddish tinge.
Self Heal - Prunella vulgaris
Sue & Roy 20140701

Selfheal can be seen creeping through the short turf of a grassland or the uncut grass of a woodland clearing or roadside verge; it can even pop up in lawns that haven't been treated with chemicals. Its clusters of violet flowers appear from June to October and provide a nectar source for bees and wasps.
Selfheal is a low-growing, perennial herb with paired, oval leaves and bluish or violet flowers that appear in dense, oblong clusters on the top of its stems. The purple-tinged seed head remains after flowering.
It is used as an anti-inflammatory and has anti-allergic activity. In western medicine it is used externally for treating minor injuries, sores, burns, bruises and can also be used as a mouthwash to treat mouth ulcers.
Snakes Head Fritillary - Fritillaria meleagris
John F Map B-I3 20140402 planted by volunteers Mar 2013

The name Fritillaria comes from the Latin fritillus meaning dice-box, possibly referring to the chequered pattern on the flowers although this derivation has been disputed. The name meleagris means ‘spotted like a Guinea fowl. The common name "snake's head" probably refers to the somewhat snakelike appearance of the nodding flower heads on their long stems. Vita Sackville-West called it "a sinister little flower, in the mournful colour of decay."
It is native to Europe but in many places it is an endangered species that is rarely found in the wild but is commonly grown in gardens.
Snowdrops - Galanthus nivalis
Karen O'Connell (& John F 20140219)

For many of us, the first sign of spring and the promise of milder weather just around the corner is the first clump of brave Snowdrops we spy poking their way through the soil of a woodland, churchyard or town garden. Yet despite its long history in the UK, the Snowdrop may not actually be native here; it is a native of damp woods and meadows on the continent, but was not recorded as growing wild here until the late 18th century. Nevertheless, it has certainly become naturalised from garden escapees, and white Snowdrop 'valleys' can now be seen across the country.
Snowdrops are a familiar spring flower, coming into bloom in January and flowering until March. Look for their famous nodding, white flowers, each carried on a single stem. The narrow, grey-green leaves appear around the base of the stem and these plants often form clumps.
Sweetscented Bedstraw - Galium odoratum
John F May 2016

A herbaceous plant, it grows to 30–50 cm long, often lying flat on the ground or supported by other plants. Its vernacular names include woodruff, sweet woodruff, and wild baby's breath; master of the woods would be a literal translation of the German Waldmeister. It is sometimes confused with Galium triflorum and Galium verum.
It owes its sweet smell to the odiferous agent coumarin, and is sometimes used as a flavoring agent due to its chemical content.
The leaves are simple, lanceolate, glabrous, 2–5 cm long, and borne in whorls of 6–9. The small (4–7 mm diameter) flowers are produced in cymes, each white with four petals joined together at the base. The fruits are 2–4 mm diameter, produced singly, and each is covered in tiny hooked bristles which help disperse them by sticking temporarily to clothing and animal fur.

Tall Melilot - Melilotus altissimus
Sue & Roy 20140617

Tall Melilot is an introduced species in the UK, originating from Europe and commonly used as a fodder crop alongside its relatives White Melilot and Ribbed Melilot. It has now naturalised and can be found along field edges and roadside verges, and on waste ground and disturbed soils. It is a straggling plant that flowers from June to August.
Like its cousin, Ribbed Melilot, Tall Melilot has small, pea-like, yellow flowers borne on tall spikes (unsurprisingly, White Melilot has white flowers). The two may be told apart by the looser flower spikes of Ribbed Melilot, and more golden flowers of Tall Melilot. But the main difference is that these flowers are followed by black, hairy seed pods in Tall Melilot, whereas the seed pods of Ribbed Melilot are olive-green and hairless.

John F 20th June 2017

Teasel - Dipsacus fullonum
Sue & Roy 20140712

Teasels are probably most commonly known for their brown, prickly stems and conical seed heads which persist long after the plants themselves have died back for the winter. Between July and August, when Teasels are in flower, the spikey flower heads are mostly green with rings of purple flowers. Found in damp grassland and field edges, or on disturbed ground, such as roadside verges and waste grounds, Teasels are visited by bees when in flower, and birds when seeding.
It is a tall plants, often reaching the height of a person. They have thorns all the way up their stems and a cone-like flower head which gives the plant the impression of an oversized cotton bud. The flowers are tiny and purple, clustering together and appearing in rings up and down the flower head; the seed heads turn brown in winter.
The seeds are an important winter food resource for some birds, notably the European Goldfinch. They are often grown in gardens and encouraged on some nature reserves to attract them.
Toadflax (Purple) - Linaria purpurea
Sue & Roy 20140614

Purple toadflax is a perennial herb growing up to 1m in high.
The flowers are in dense spikes and range from deep purple to pale pink.
Flowers are smaller (8mm) than in common toadflax and the downward pointing spurs are slightly curved.
The linear, pointed, greyish leaves are in whorls when growing in isolation but straggly when scrambling through other vegetation.
Tufted Vetch - Vicia cracca
Sue & Roy 20140706

Tufted Vetch, also known as 'Cow Vetch' or 'Bird Vetch', is a member of the pea and clover family (legumes). It lives happily in many different habitats including woodland edges, scrubland, coastal margins and grassland, and can be seen climbing over hedges and banks. The spikes of bluish-violet flowers appear between June and August.
Tufted Vetch has long, grey-green leaves that grow in a symmetrical row from long, trailing stems. Curled tendrils used for climbing and grasping often spiral from the ends. Its flowers are pinky-purple tube shapes that turn up into a hood at the end and grow in dense clusters along a spike.
Water Dock - Rumex hydrolapathum
Sue & Roy 20140417

Water Dock, as its name suggests, can be found growing beside water at the edges of canals, ponds and rivers, and even in shallow water. Flower spikes appear from July to September.
Water Dock is a tall plant with slender and pointed leaves, and spikes of tiny, pinky-green flowers in late summer.
Welsh Poppy - Papaver cambricum
John F May 2018

The Welsh poppy is happy almost anywhere, and spreads freely in many gardens. Plants are short and bushy, with elegant graceful foliage and lots of large, flimsy golden poppy flowers produced in succession from late spring to early autumn. Plants are not very long-lived but usually self-seed freely.
It is a tap-rooted perennial with light green, pinnately lobed leaves and bowl-shaped lemon-yellow or orange flowers 5cm across

White Bryony - Bryonia alba
Sue & Roy 20140602

White Bryony is a climbing hedgerow and woodland edge plant that flowers between May and August and produces red and shiny berries that can be seen, covered in frost, in winter. Our only native member of the cucumber family, White Bryony is actually highly poisonous. The roots are particularly toxic and, despite their bitter taste, sometimes get eaten by cattle with fatal consequences.
White Bryony has curling tendrils and climbs over hedges. Its leaves have five lobes and it displays greenish, five-petalled flowers and orange-red berries.
White Campion - Silene latifolia
Sue & Roy 20140705

White Campion is a common wildflower that grows in fields, along hedgerows and roadside verges, and on waste ground. It flowers throughout the summer, but it's actually at night when the blooms produce a heady scent, attracting many feeding moths.
It displays white flowers with five petals, each deeply notched and almost divided into two; its oval leaves and stems are hairy. In places where it grows alongside Red Campion, the two may hybridise to produce pinky or white blooms.
It is also named the Grave Flower or Flower of the Dead in parts of England as they are seen often growing on gravesites and around tombstones.
White Clover - Trifolium repens
John F June 2017

A herbaceous perennial plant in the bean family. It is native to Europe and central Asia. One of the most widely cultivated types of clover, it has been widely introduced worldwide as a forage crop, and is now also common in most grassy areas (lawns and gardens). The species includes varieties often classed as small, intermediate and large, according to height, which reflects petiole length. The term “white clover” is applied to the species in general, “Dutch clover” is often applied to intermediate varieties (but sometimes to smaller varieties), and “ladino clover” is applied to large varieties.

White Dead-nettle - Lamium album
John F May 2017

The white dead-nettle has nettle shaped leaves that do not sting, and grows in woodlands and grasslands.
The nectar at the base of the tube-like flowers is only accessible to long-tongued insects such as bumble bees and mason bees. Smaller insects are often not heavy enough to open the flowers. The nettle-shaped leaves do not sting and are eaten by slugs and snails.
It common name ‘deadnettle’ because its leaves resemble those of the stinging nettle. Unlike the nettle, it does not have stinging hairs, and can be easily distinguished by its large white (or pink) flower.
White Sweet Violet - Viola odorata
John F Map B-D3 20140321

This is a very early violet starting to flower in early March but sometimes even in February. It can be white, purple or mauve or pinkish but all have the distinctive roundish leaves and blunt sepals which distinguish it from other common violets. It seems to prefer to grow on basic or neutral soils.
Wild Carrot - Daucus carota
John F July 2017

Wild Carrot is a widespread perennial plant of grasslands, particularly those on chalk soils, and coastlines. In bud, the dense umbels (umbrella-like) of flowers look reddish, but they soon bloom into white flowers. These flowers can be seen from June to September, eventually turning into concave, bird's-nest-like seed heads.
The white umbels of Wild Carrot are very densely packed and rounded. Its leaves are divided into narrow leaflets and the plant is hairy.
When you hover over the picture note the little redish flower in the centre of the umbrella.
Winter Aconite - Eranthis hyemalis
John F Feb 2017 planted by volunteers Sep 2012

Glossy leaves and yellow chalice-shaped flowers will carpet woodland Jan - Feb.
This introduced plant generally flowers just before the Snowdrops and is arguably the first true Spring flower of the year. Planted in Holt Spinney in 2012 by volunteers, it likes shady or wooded areas.
This is the leaf only.
Winter Daffodil - Sternbergia lutea
John F March 2018

NOT SURE WHERE THIS CAME FROM?
The Winter Daffodil has a wide distribution from the Balearic Islands in the Western Mediterranean through to Tajikistan in Central Asia. It dies down to a bulb during the summer. Leaves first appear in the autumn (September to November in its native habitats), and are glossy green, up to 12 mm wide; they remain through the winter.
Deep yellow flowers appear soon after the leaves, with six tepals around 3–3.5 mm long., six yellow stamens and a style with a single stigma.
Smaller forms with narrower leaves (up to 5 mm wide) and narrower tepals (3–12 mm rather than 10–20 mm) have been separated off under various names (e.g. S. lutea var. graeca, S. sicula). All are treated as S. lutea in the Kew World Checklist.

Wood Anemone - Anemone nemorosa
John F Map C-E5 20150505 planted by Jim & lady 2013

The leaves of the wood anemone are simple but are so deeply divided that they have the appearance of a palmate leaf – the leaf is sometimes described as trifoliate.
The leaves have a distinctive smell, often described as musky – which may account for one of the wood anemone’s alternative names “smell fox”.
There is a whorl of leaves just below the flower, whilst others arise from ground level on long stalks.
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
Sue & Roy 20140715

Yarrow is a tough plant of many grasslands, from lawns to verges and meadows; clusters of white, flat-topped flower heads appear from June to November. Yarrow has been used to help restore arable land to grassland by sowing it along with other natives.
A strong-smelling perennial, Yarrow has dark green, finely divided, feathery leaves. It has flat-topped clusters of white flower heads; each flower head comprises yellowish disc florets and pinky-white ray florets - together they give the impression of one flower with a yellow centre and white petals.
Yellow Archangel - Lamium galeobdolon
Sue & Roy 20140421

The flowers of Yellow Archangel come into bloom just as the Bluebells are fading, replacing the blue carpet of a spring woodland with a golden-yellow one. A plant of ancient woodlands and hedgerows, Yellow Archangel may well have got its common name from its virtue of not stinging, despite being part of the 'dead'-nettle family.
Looking a bit like a Stinging Nettle, Yellow Archangel is a hairy perennial with heart-shaped or oval, toothed leaves and whorls of yellow flowers that appear up the stem in May and June.
Yellow Iris - Iris pseudacorus
John F June 2017

The water-loving Yellow Iris can be found along the margins of waterways and ponds, and in wet woodlands, fens and saltmarshes. Often mingled among other reedbed plants, its large, bright yellow flowers appear between May and August and are thought to be the inspiration for the fleur-de-lis symbol which is used in heraldry and also by the scouts.
It has tall reed stems that are sometimes branched. Its long, narrow leaves are grey-green and sword-like, and may droop at the ends. Its large, yellow flower petals fold back on themselves and hang down around the outer edges of the flower.

Yellow Water Lily - Nuphar lutea
Sue & Roy 20130704

The Yellow Water-lily is a common plant of still or slow-moving water and grows in ponds, lakes, canals and ditches. It has large 'lily pad' leaves, up to 40cm across, and grows in water up to 3 metres deep, with the leaves floating on the surface. It flowers during the summer from June to September, and smells like the dregs of wine, hence other common names like 'Brandy Bottle'.
The Yellow Water-lily has more oval leaves than the White Water Lily, and a smaller, yellower flower which it holds above the water.

Flower colour Blue Green Red White

Amphibious Bistort - Persicaria amphibia
Arrowhead - Sagittaria sagittifolia

Autumal Hawkbit - Scorzoneroides autumnalis
Bee Orchid - Ophrys apifera
Bindweed (Field) - Convolvulus arvensis
Bindweed (Hedge) - Calystegia sepium
Bittersweet Nightshade - Solanum dulcamara
Bird's-foot-trefoil (Common) - Lotus corniculatus
Black Horehound - Ballota nigra
Bluebell - Hyacinthoides non-scripta
Black Medick - Medicago lupulina
Bluebell (Spanish) - Hyacinthoides hispanica
Bogbean - Menyanthes trifoliata
Bristly Oxtongue - Helminthotheca echioides
Broad-leaved Dock - Rumex obtusifolius
Broad-leaved Willowherb - Epilobium montanum

Bryony (White) - Bryonia dioica
Bryony (White) - Bryonia alba
Campion (White) - Silene latifolia
Canadian Pondweed - Elodea canadensis
Charlock - Sinapis arvensis
Chickweed (Common) - Stellaria media
Chicory - Cichorium intybus
Cleavers - Galium aparine
Coltsfoot - Tussilago farfara
Common Knapweed - Centaurea nigra
Common Mallow - Malva sylvestris
Common Mouse-ear - Cerastium fontanum

Common Whitlowgrass - Erophila verna
Corn Chamomile - Anthemis arvensis
Corncockle - Agrostemma githago

Cornflower - Centaurea cyanus
Corn Marigold - Glebionis segetum
Corn Poppy - Papaver rhoeas
Cow Parsley - Anthriscus sylvestris
Cowslip - Primula veris
Creeping Buttercup - Ranunculus repens
Creeping Cinquefoil - Potentilla reptans
Creeping Thistle - Cirsium arvense
Crocus - Crocus vernus
Cuckoo Flower - Cardamine pratensis
Cuckoo-Pint/Lords-and-Ladies - Arum maculatum
Cultivated Daffodil agg. - Narcissus
Curled Dock - Rumex crispus
Cut-leaved Crane's-bill - Geranium dissectum
Daffodil - Narcissus pseudonarcissus
Daisy - Bellis perennis
Dandelion - agg. Taraxacum officinale agg.
Enchanter's-nightshade - Circaea lutetiana
Fat Duckweed - Lemna gibba
Fat Hen - Chenopodium album
Field Forget-me-not - Myosotis arvensis
Figwort – Scrophularia nodosa
Flat-stalked Pondweed - Potamogeton friesii
Fly Honeysuckle - Lonicera xylosteum
Forget-me-not (Wood) - Myosotis sylvatica
Garlic Mustard - Alliaria petiolata
Germander Speedwell - Veronica chamaedrys
Goatsbeard - Arunus dioicus
Great Burnet - Sanguisorba officinalis
Great Willowherb - Epilobium hirsutum
Greater Burdock - Arctium lappa

Greater Plantain - Plantago major
Greater Stitchwort - Stellaria holostea
Green Alkanet - Pentaglottis sempervirens
Ground Ivy - Glechoma hederacea
Goat's-beard - Tragopogon pratensis
Goldilocks Buttercup - Ranunculus auricomus
Groundsel - Senecio vulgaris
Hairy Tare - Vicia hirsuta
Hedge Mustard - Sisymbrium officinale
Hedge Woundwort - Stachys sylvatica
Hedgerow Crane's-bill - Geranium pyrenaicum

Herb Bennet/Wood Avens - Geum urbanum
Herb-Robert - Geranium robertianum
Hoary Ragwort - Jacobaea erucifolia
Hogweed - Heracleum sphondylium
Honesty - Lunaria annua
Honey Garlic - Allium siculum
Hooded Skullcap - Scutellaria galericulata
Horse-radish - Armoracia rusticana

Yellow Mauve/Purple/Pink

Ivy-leaved Speedwell - Veronica hederifolia
Keeled-fruited Cornsalad - Valerianella carinata
Knotgrass - Polygonum aviculare
Lady's Bedstraw - Galium verum
Large Bindweed - Calystegia silvatica
Large Bittercress - Cardamine amara
Lesser Celandine - Ficaria verna
Lesser Stitchwort - Stellaria graminea
Lesser Trefoil - Trifolium dubium
Marsh-bedstraw - Galium palustre
Marsh Marigold - Caltha palustris
Meadow Buttercup - Ranunculus acris
Meadow Crane's-bill - Geranium pratense
Meadowsweet - Filipendula ulmaria
Meadow Vetchling - Lathyrus pratensis
Nettle (Common) - Urtica dioica
Nipplewort - Lapsana communis
Orange Balsam - Impatiens capensis
Ox-eye Daisy - Leucanthemum vulgare
Periwinkle - Vinca minor
Pineapple Weed - Matricaria discoidea
Perfoliate Pondweed - Potamogeton perfoliatus
Prickly Lettuce - Lactuca serriola
Prickly Sow-thistle - Sonchus asper
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
Ragged Robin - Silene flos-cuculi
Ragwort (Common) - Jacobaea vulgaris
Ramsons - Allium ursinum
Red Bartsia - Odontites vernus
Red Campion - Silene dioica
Red Clover - Trifolium pratense
Red Dead-nettle - Lamium purpureum

Reed - Phragmitis australis
Ribwort Plantain - Plantago lanceolata
Rosebay Willowherb - Chamerion angustifolium
Rough Chervil - Chaerophyllum temulum
Rough Hawkbit - Leontodon hispidus
Scentless Mayweed - Tripleurospermum inodorum
Self Heal - Prunella vulgaris
Silverweed - Potentilla anserina
Shepherd's-purse - Capsella bursa-pastoris
Smooth Hawk's-beard - Crepis capillaris
Smooth Sow-thistle - Sonchus oleraceus
Snakes Head Fritillary - Fritillaria meleagris
Snowdrops - Galanthus nivalis
Sorrel - Rumex acetosa
Spear Thistle - Cirsium vulgare
Stinking Iris - Iris foetidissima

Sweet-flag - Acorus calamus
Sweetscented Bedstraw - Galium odoratum
Tall Melilot - Melilotus altissimus
Teasel - Dipsacus fullonum
Thyme-leaved Speedwell - Veronica serpyllifolia
Toadflax (Purple) - Linaria purpurea
Tufted vetch - Vicia cracca
Upright Hedge-parsley - Torilis japonica
Vetch (Common) - Vicia sativa
Violet (Dog) - Viola riviniana
Violet (Sweet) - Viola odorata
Wall Speedwell - Veronica arvensis
Water Dock - Rumex hydrolapathum
Water Figwort - Scrophularia auriculata
Welsh Poppy - Papaver cambricum
White Clover - Trifolium repens
White Dead-nettle - Lamium album
Wild Carrot - Daucus carota subsp. carota
Winter Aconite - Eranthis hyemalis
Winter Daffodil - Sternbergia lutea

Wood Anemone - Anemone nemorosa
Wood Dock - Rumex sanguineus
Yarrow - Achillea millefolium
Yellow Archangel - Lamium galeobdolon<
Yellow Iris - Iris pseudacorus
Yellow Water-lily - Nuphar lutea

Observed by Harry Ball
Bulbous Buttercup - Ranunculus bulbosus
Hairy Bittercress - Cardamine hirsulta
Hedge Parsley - Torilis japonica
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